Title page: The title should be clear and concise.
Abstract: The abstract indicates WHAT WAS FOUND, NOT
what was done. The abstract should be a single paragraph which
clearly states new and significant information in the paper. It
should elaborate upon the title and condense the article.
Introduction: The introduction should explain why it is
necessary to perform the experiment, and include some historical
background. The introduction should make the subject of the paper
clear, include a definition of the problem, a brief synopsis of
previous studies related to the problem, and the rationale for
the author undertaking the present study. A statement of purpose
should also be included.
Materials & Methods: This section should provide the
reader with sufficient information to enable him to duplicate the
author's methods and assess their accuracy. If previously published
methods are used, they should be referenced, and any special
adaptations by the author should be provided. The methods should cover
HOW the experiment was done, WHAT equipment and animals were used, and
comments about how the animal was kept.
Results: Data and observations should be presented in the
RESULTS and should be sufficiently new and original to merit publication.
Data presented as tables and figures should NOT duplicate information
already outlined in detail in the text.
Discussion: The discussion should cover the validity of
observations and techniques used. INTERNAL consistency of observations
should be remarked upon, and results should also be COMPARED to
EXTERNAL reports. It is acceptable to speculate and suggest
implications for the results.
Conclusion: Must be related to the Introduction and Hypothesis.
References: When citing references, your goal should be to
give your reader ALL the information required to trace the information
you present to the sources of literature which you used.
Figures and Tables: DO NOT include figures unless they are
necessary to the text, and are referred to specifically in the text,
but do not hesitate to use figures if they are of real value. If
the figure is from a book or article, credit the author and year
of publication in the Figure caption, and list the work in the
- e.g., 1. As illustrated in Figure 1, the tooth structure...
or Teeth are derived from dermal bone (Figure 1).
- e.g., 2. When the figure is used exactly as in the reference, and the
caption you use is the same OR modified, the caption should read:
Figure 1. Development of the tooth (Hyman 1942).
- e.g., 3. When you modify the figure and the caption is the
same OR modified, your caption should read:
Figure 1. Development of the tooth (after Hyman 1942).