Title page: The title
should be clear, concise, and unambiguous.
Abstract: The abstract indicates
WHAT WAS FOUND, NOT what was done. The abstract should be a single
paragraph which clearly states new and significant information in the paper.
It should elaborate upon the title and condense the article. Abstracts
should be terse, clear, and explicit.
Introduction: The introduction
should explain why it is necessary to perform the experiment, and include
some historical background. The introduction should make the subject
of the paper clear, include a definition of the problem, a brief synopsis
of previous studies related to the problem, and the rationale for the
author undertaking the present study. A statement of purpose should also
Materials & Methods: This
section should provide the reader with sufficient information to enable
him to duplicate the author's methods and assess their accuracy. If
previously published methods are used, they should be referenced, and any
special adaptations by the author should be provided. The methods should
cover HOW the experiment was done, WHAT equipment and animals were used,
and comments about how the animal was kept.
Results: Data and observations
should be presented in the RESULTS and should be sufficiently new and
original to merit publication. Data presented as tables and figures
should NOT duplicate information already outlined in detail in the text.
Discussion: The discussion
should cover the validity of observations and techniques used. INTERNAL
consistency of observations should be remarked upon, and results should
also be COMPARED to EXTERNAL reports. It is acceptable to speculate
and suggest implications for the results.
Conclusion: Must be related to
the Introduction and Hypothesis.
References: When citing references,
your goal should be to give your reader ALL the information required to
trace the information you present to the sources of literature which you
used. Only the first word of the title and any proper names occurring
in it are capitalized.
Figures and Tables: Figures and tables
should be placed on separate additional pages between the text and
literature cited. Use one page for each figure with its caption. DO NOT
include figures unless they are necessary to the text, and are referred
to specifically in the text, but do not hesitate to use figures if they
are of real value. If the figure is from a book or article, credit the
author and year of publication in the Figure caption, and list the work
in the "Literature Cited."
e.g., 1. As illustrated in Figure 1, the tooth structure...
or Teeth are derived from dermal bone (Figure 1).
e.g., 2. When the figure is used exactly as in the reference, and the
caption you use is the same OR modified, the caption should read:
Figure 1. Development of the tooth (Hyman 1942).
e.g., 3. When you modify the figure and the caption is the same OR modified,
your caption should read:
Figure 1. Development of the tooth (after Hyman 1942).